Christmas Day

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Christmas or Christmas Day, observed most commonly on December 25 is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ. Christmas is a religious and cultural celebration among over 2 billions of people around the world (over a third of the world’s population), and celebrated for hundreds of years around the world.

Christmas Day recognizes as a public holiday in many nations across the globe. Christmas Day celebrated culturally by a large number of Christian and non-Christian people, and is an integral part of holiday season. Not all countries celebrate Christmas on 25 December, and it is not a public holiday in countries that do not celebrate Christmas.

Christmas Day celebrates the Nativity of Jesus which (traditionally, but unlikely in reality) took place 25 December 1 BC. 25 December will be a public holiday in most  countries around the world. If 25 December falls on a weekend, then a nearby week day may be taken as a replacement holiday.

History of the holiday

Whilst the holiday has a strong grounding in the story of the birth of Jesus, many of the traditions we associate with Christmas have evolved from pre-christian beliefs and certainly the traditions have evolved beyond purely a Christian holiday to have a wider secular significance.

The celebration of Christmas in late December is certainly as a result of pre-existing celebrations happening at that time, marking the Winter Solstice. Most notable of these is Yule (meaning ‘Feast’), a winter pagan festival that was originally celebrated by Germanic people. The exact date of Yule depends on the lunar  cycle but it falls from late December to early January. In some Northern Europe countries, the local word for Christmas has a closer linguistic tie to ‘Yule’ than  ‘Christmas’, and it is still a term that may be used for Christmas in some English-speaking countries. Several Yule traditions are familiar to the modern celebration of  Christmas, such as Yule Log, the custom of burning a large wooden log on the fire at Christmas; or indeed carol singing, which is surprisingly a very ancient tradition.

Under the Julian calendar, the winter solstice was fixed on December 25, and this date was also the day of the popular roman holiday of Saturnalia, in honour of Saturn,  the god of agriculture; which was later superceded by Sol Invictus, a day that bundled up the celebration of several sun based gods into one easy to manage festival.

As Christianity began to take a hold across the Roman empire and beyond, the date of when to celebrate the birth of Christ became a bit of an issue, with several different dates proposed.

It wasn’t until 350 AD, when the then Bishop of Rome, Pope Julius I, fixed the official Christmas day on December 25. Unfortunately Julius I didn’t show his working out  on how he reached this date; some scholars later suggested that it was calculated as nine months after the Annunciation (March 25), when the angel Gabriel is said to  have appeared to Mary and told her she would bear the son of God. Whatever the reasoning, it is clear that, just as key pagan sites were being chosen for new churches,  so too the date was chosen with the intention to catapult Christmas into becoming a major festival by placing it over the pre-existing pagan festivals.

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